Energy-Based Test Sample Adaptation for Domain Generalization


In this paper, we propose energy-based sample adaptation at test time for domain generalization. Where previous works adapt their models to target domains, we adapt the unseen target samples to source-trained models. To this end, we design a discriminative energy-based model, which is trained on source domains to jointly model the conditional distribution for classification and data distribution for sample adaptation. The model is optimized to simultaneously learn a classifier and an energy function. To adapt target samples to source distributions, we iteratively update the samples by energy minimization with stochastic gradient Langevin dynamics. Moreover, to preserve the categorical information in the sample during adaptation, we introduce a categorical latent variable into the energy-based model. The latent variable is learned from the original sample before adaptation by variational inference and fixed as a condition to guide the sample update. Experiments on six benchmarks for classification of images and microblog threads demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal.

ICLR 2023